Marking Up the Text

The Same Thing in Different Words

            In many languages, and in English in particular, we prefer variation in our words. We might repeat an idea, but we change the words slightly so we don’t sound like a broken record. In addition, every word has a basic meaning but it often includes subtle shades of additional meaning. By selecting which set of similar words we use in a discussion, we fine tune the exact ideas we want to get across.

            We also should be aware of when the antonyms of our keywords are being used.



1.         Read through the book of Romans a third time. Add synonyms and antonyms to your list of keywords.

2.         Go through Romans marking the keywords of the book with colored icons so keywords are easily spotted. Use the same icon when synonyms are used. Use the same icon with a red slash through it when an antonym is used.

Who is this?

            Greek, like English, makes use of pronouns to refer back to who is being discussed. It is not uncommon for wrong conclusions to be drawn from a text simply because we don’t realize to whom the text is referring.


1.         Take your list of people and assign each person or group a different color. If you are limited in the number of colors, make some shaded words, underlined words, and over-lined words.

2.         Go through Romans marking all the people, including the pronouns, with the color code you devised.

Class Discussion:

1.         Give an example of marking up the first chapter in class.

2.         What problems did you have in identifying pronouns?