I am a Catholic. What evidence is there from the Scriptures that the Catholic Church is not the one true Church to which all Christians belong?
Since the Roman Catholic church is a large organization, your question is a broad one. What would need to be done is to compare current Catholic teachings and practices against what the Bible teaches to see if they match. A mismatch would mean that the Catholic church is no long like the one true church discussed in the Scriptures (Ephesians 4:1-6).
While by no means exhaustive, take a look at the answer I provided a while back to a similar question: "What is wrong with the Catholicism?" A related question shows how Catholicism evolved into its current state: "Why did Catholicism start and when did it happen?"
Thank you for the letter. I read your work. You believe that whatever is true must be fully explicit in Scripture, or in other words you reject the development of doctrine. What are the best verses that teach this in Scripture?
How interesting that you originally asked how the Catholic church was wrong by the Scriptures, but when provided with a small list, you express surprise that it is wrong to have doctrine not found in the Scriptures.
But to answer your question:
"Beloved, while I was very diligent to write to you concerning our common salvation, I found it necessary to write to you exhorting you to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints" (Jude 3).
"All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work" (II Timothy 3:16-17).
"Grace and peace be multiplied to you in the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord, as His divine power has given to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of Him who called us by glory and virtue, by which have been given to us exceedingly great and precious promises, that through these you may be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust" (II Peter 1:2-4).
"I marvel that you are turning away so soon from Him who called you in the grace of Christ, to a different gospel, which is not another; but there are some who trouble you and want to pervert the gospel of Christ. But even if we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you than what we have preached to you, let him be accursed. As we have said before, so now I say again, if anyone preaches any other gospel to you than what you have received, let him be accursed. For do I now persuade men, or God? Or do I seek to please men? For if I still pleased men, I would not be a bondservant of Christ" (Galatians 1:6-10).
"Do not add to His words, Lest He rebuke you, and you be found a liar" (Proverbs 30:6).