What chapter in the Bible did a Jewish woman become queen?
Actually Jewish queens are mentioned in several places.
Athaliah made herself queen of Judah after her son's death by killing all her grandsons (though she ended up missing one). See II Kings 8:26; II Kings 11:1-16; II Chronicles 22:10-23:21.
The book of Esther is about how a young Jewish woman became queen in the Medo-Persian empire. Take some time to read the book. It is short, but very engaging.
Bethsheba married King David and thus became a queen in Israel (II Samuel 11:17; I Kings 1:11). Another woman mentioned by name as being queen mother was Maacah (I Kings 15:13). Other queen mothers are mentioned, though not by name.
The book of Song of Solomon is about a young Israelite woman who marries King Solomon. She is not mentioned by name. You can use the study guide, The Greatest Love Song Written, to learn more about this woman's story.